Interesting challenge. I just set a demo product in kickstart 2 as "disabled" and the product shows up in both administrative listings.
So, for your catalog to show disabled products it should "just work" since the views are ultimately pulling from the same search api listings. The only thing I can figure is that there's a search api filter being applied in code that is filtering out "disabled" products from the catalog.
Would love for someone else to weigh in here that might know something more.
For now, depending on how you want to use the "disabled" field, maybe you would consider adding an additional field and use hook_form_alter() that hides the real "status" field but it would give you a bit more flexibility on how your catalog would react.
Both this administrative views : Commerce Backoffice: Products (Content) , Commerce Backoffice: All Product variations (Commerce Product) , aren't using the same search api index as the catalog views .
Please disable a product and see if it will appear on the catalog (/products).